10: Development, Education and Inequality

Many development agencies work in the education sector with the aim of addressing inequalities in educational provision. Looking at the intersection of development and education, this panel addresses the roles of institutions and educators in the reproduction and deconstruction of inequality. The panel welcomes perspectives on the role of education in structural, material, relational, institutional, geographical and technological manifestations of inequality from the perspective of development work. The panel considers how educational inequality manifests as a structural and relational phenomenon, in relation to the colonial roots of global inequality as well as the politics of power over marginalised, subaltern and subjugated knowledge. We invite papers which address development sector response to local and global inequalities in educational provision, curricula, attendance, outcomes, aims, and practices. The panel interrogates inequalities in, and beyond, the global South-North divide, particularly urban, rural and regional inequalities. We welcome critical, feminist, post-colonial and queer theory approaches, as well as trans and multi-disciplinary approaches. We encourage participation from scholars from global south, women and marginalised communities. Themes may include, but are not limited to: Education and social marginalization; educational provision and participation; policy responses to Educational Inequality; EFA and inequality; education for sustainability; decolonizing education; inequality in representation in the teaching profession; teacher preparation for equity and non-discrimination; education export and inequality; inclusive participatory educational practice. Abstracts (max. 250 words) should be emailed to the panel chair.

Chaired by Crystal Green (University of Jyväskylä), crystalbgreen@gmail.com

Room 404

Tuija Veintie (University of Helsinki)

In search of dialogue between knowledges in intercultural bilingual upper secondary education in Ecuador – an analysis through educational materials

Abstract
Ecuador claims to be plurinational and intercultural by its constitution. In addition, the Ecuadorian law on education claims that the national education system is intercultural and supports dialogue between knowledges. Such dialogue between knowledges can contribute to epistemological justice, providing spaces for Indigenous knowledge that has been invisibilized in the Ecuadorian society and educational system. This paper analyses the representations of Indigenous ecological and cultural knowledge in the educational materials used in intercultural bilingual (IB) upper secondary schools in Pastaza region in the Ecuadorian Amazonia. The main data includes textbooks, community seasonal and educational calendars, and other educational materials that the teachers use in their instruction of natural and social sciences in these upper secondary schools. In which ways and to what extent these educational materials represent Amazonian Indigenous ecological and cultural knowledge? Is there a dialogue between knowledges? The textbook analysis shows that these books include very little references to the Indigenous ecological and cultural knowledge. Moreover, only few schools in the region produce and use their own educational materials based on local Indigenous knowledge. The teachers supplement the textbooks in their instruction mostly with orality: narrating or discussing local issues. Therefore, it is highly dependent on the teachers’ knowledge, skills and interests, in which ways or to what extent the upper secondary schools provide space for Indigenous knowledge and dialogue between knowledges.

Margareth Amon Mapunda (College of Business Education, Tanzania), Mariam Ally Tambwe (College of Business Education, Tanzania) and Mzomwe Yahya Mazana (College of Business Education, Tanzania)

Inequality representation in the Teaching Profession: Evidence from Higher Education in Tanzania

Abstract
Over the past fifty years there has been a growing attention to ensure gender equality in
education. Various global commitments to gender equality across all levels of education has been agreed. Despite these efforts, patriarchy or masculinity is still strongly felt and experienced by the unequal representation of women in the teaching profession. This paper aims at examining the inequality representation in teaching profession in Higher Education (HE) in Tanzania. The study specifically: examines the status of women’s representation in the teaching profession in the ten Higher Education in the Dar Es Salaam region; identifies the challenges associated with unequal representation; and scrutinize the determinants of equal women representation in teaching profession in the HE. The study applies a mixed method approach utilizing a semi structured questionnaire. Data are collected from ten purposively selected HE in Dar Es Salaam, where, respondents are randomly selected based on the list provided by the human resource officers of the respective institutions. The collected data are analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis techniques. This study is important as the results will provide insights on how to transform Higher Learning Institutions to achieve genuine gender equality which will help policy makers to come up with actual strategies to improve the inequality representation in academia.

Siwach Sripokangkul (Khon Kaen University, Thailand)

Education for the Production and Re-production of Docile Bodies: The Problems of Civic Education in Thailand

Abstract
In the protracted political conflict which has plagued Thailand for over a decade, Thai traditional elites and old-style bureaucrats have stated that the problem of Thai political development derives from a lack of “citizenship” characteristics in Thai people. In their view, the best solution has been to educate the masses and to cultivate civic education by teaching both it and Thai ‘core values’ as a subject to students. As a result, the students have become patriotic “saviors”. They are expected to be strong citizens who can solve the political development problem under the democratic regime of the government with the King as Head of State. This article seeks to understand the result of a curriculum including the two subjects of civic education and history which have been taught in Thai schools for 12 years,covering both primary and secondary schools. What type of Thai citizen does this curriculum desire to produce and re-produce? The author thoroughly analyzed many civic education and history textbooks and argues that the contents of these subjects have been transforming students into ‘docile’ students. They have become “objects” which are ordered and imposed on by the state ideology, which produces and re-produces them to be ultra-royalists and ultra-nationalists. The article concludes by applying the concepts of “traditional education” from John Dewey, “banking education” from Paolo Freire, “docile bodies” from Michel Foucault, and the theories of Thai scholar-critics to discuss the problems of civic education, which has, in fact,undermined democratization in Thai society.