During the past decades, there has been increasing interest around the world in monitoring, understanding, and addressing inequality, both within and between countries. Addressing inequality is not only a priority for normative reasons, but also given the implications it may have for economic growth and development, peace and stability, governance, and social cohesion. Reducing all types of inequality is now part of the agenda of governments, international organizations, and other international actors. The formulation of SDG 10 is an excellent expression of this, as well as the crucial role of reducing inequalities in achieving other SDGs. This mission, however, still faces important challenges on the research side; for instance, with respect to methodologies and available data, especially for low- income countries and long-term analyses. The panel will map empirical patterns and trends in inequalities and build our understanding of inequality as both an outcome and a causal variable. What factors influence change in inequality, and in turn what does inequality mean for key economic, political, and social outcomes? How might inequality be addressed and more inclusive institutions built? We consider both inequalities between individuals and households (vertical inequality) and inequalities between multiple types of groups (horizontal inequality), including those defined by ethnicity, race, gender, and geographic region. We study inequalities in terms of income, consumption, and wealth, as well as of access to decent employment, access to public services, political power, and social status. This panel is already full.
Chaired by Rachel Gisselquist (UNU-WIDER), email@example.com
Antti Pelanteri (UNU-WIDER)
Different levels of income equate to different levels of well-being. The World Income Inequality Database (WIID), hosted by UNU-WIDER for two decades, is used extensively for research on how income is distributed, and on a broad range of socio-economic issues related to income inequality. Mr. Pelanteri will discuss trends and measurement issues in global inequality using the latest version of the WIID.
Rachel Gisselquist (UNU-WIDER)
Ethnic Inequality: Persistence and Levers of Change
While most work on inequality speaks to ‘vertical’ inequality between individuals or households, ‘horizontal’ inequality between ethnic groups in society may be as, if not more, concerning, with key implications for peace and prosperity (see, e.g., Stewart 2008; Alesina, Michalopoulos, and Papaioannou 2016; Brown and Langer 2010; Baldwin and Huber 2010; United Nations and World Bank 2018). This presentation provides an introduction to UNU-WIDER’s ongoing research on horizontal inequalities, with particular attention to new work on persistence and levers of change. Drawing examples from multiple countries, the presentation speaks to key considerations in addressing horizontal inequalities and to the range of policy options that can be considered
Markus Jäntti (Stockholm University)
Income distribution in Uganda – a tax register-based assessment
Uganda has extensive register data on taxable income and taxes paid going back a decade or so. By combining register data with other sources, including census data, national accounts, and household surveys, it is possible to estimate the distribution of both pre-fiscal and post-fiscal distribution starting in 2009. It is also possible to estimate for a subset of the population income mobility and income variability. This paper presents the first such estimates, broken down also by region, and discusses challenges that lie ahead.
Ayu Pratiwi (University of Turku)
Land inheritance and gender: long term implications on intergenerational wealth allocation, education and female empowerment
Tanzania introduced in 1998 a one of the most radical land laws in Africa. The framework stipulated that women would be represented in the land administration bodies that protect women’s rights to co- ownership of land, as well as the individual right to acquire, hold, sell and use land. In this study we are using a unique panel (KHDS) from Tanzania that stretches from the start of 1990s to 2010 to investigate the impacts of women’s property rights on intergenerational wealth allocation, education and female empowerment.
Simone Schotte (UNU-WIDER)
Predicting the global distribution of routine and non-routine work
Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in studying patterns and trends in the task content of jobs, in order to improve understanding of how the twin forces of trade and technology shape the nature of work around the world. This research commonly assumes that the task content of occupations is identical across countries and can be captured using US O*NET occupation-specific task data. However, for less developed countries, this assumption may be highly problematic, given that large differences in labor productivity, technology adoption, and skills persist, and, in consequence, jobs may utilize different skills and involve different tasks across countries. To address this issue, we use survey data collected in 46 low-, middle-, and high-income economies to develop a regression- based methodology that allows us to predict the country-specific routine task intensity (RTI) of occupations. We then combine the country-specific and O*NET based task measures with time series data on occupational structures in 87 countries that together employ more than 2.5 billion workers. Both measures indicate a gross reallocation of labor away from routine towards non-routine tasks in all country groups. However, our country-specific measures show that the decline in RTI has been faster in high-income countries than in the rest of the world, leading to a widening gap in RTI due to an increasing concentration of non-routine work in high-income countries, and of routine work in low- and middle-income countries.